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Удобрение "Риверм"- возвращение в природу!
In this work are stated the principles of ecologically safe agriculture, the features of development and nourishment of plants.
It is exposed the biophysical mechanism of new generation preparation «Riverm» when growing of agricultural cultures and improvement of soils fertility.
RETURN TO NATURE.
The reality is that people` consumer attitude toward an environment approached a biosphere to mortal danger. In the process of public evolution people all «walked» away from Nature farther and farther, they limited themselves by the mechanical world of artificial things and objects. As a result they were materialized and deeply disfigured and hid from themselves their true essence.
Ecological consciousness of men must not base on the foundation of mechanical materialism, on harmonization of mechanical connections with Nature. Men are inseparable from Nature. Nature is in men and men are in Nature. An understanding that Nature is «an inorganic body» of a man results in understanding of a unity between them.
Every living substance in nature is interconnected. The German scientist Ditmer when was an assistant, was running experiments with the plants. He added nutrients to them and controlled their reaction by devices. In some time Ditmer decided to have a bite. He boiled water in a glass and put an egg into it. At this time all devices exceeded indexes. Ditmer was not able to explain the reason of this phenomenon. In some years another experiment was made.
One half of snail`s litter was brought to Germany, and another half was brought to Australia. When a snail in Australia was being pricked by a needle the snails in Germany were abruptly shrinking. Ditmer understood that every living substance in Nature instantly reacts to pain of living substance.
If, for example, an animal browses leaves from a bush, nearby bushes feel it and secrete bitter enzymes protecting them from animals. It once more confirms that in Nature everything is interrelated.
Today humanity begins to understand an obvious truth that existence of civilization as a whole, depends on the state of the cover of the planet. Due to green plants the amount of СО2 and О2 remains enough stable in an atmosphere in spite of milliards tones of carbon dioxide which go into atmosphere as a result of burning and breathing.
Dutch naturalist Yan Batist Van-Gelmont (1577-1644) in one of his experiments set a task – to define the source of plants` life.
To answer this fundamental for science question, he made genius in its simplicity but deep in its essence experiment.
80kg of preliminary dried up earth he poured in a figuline. A young pussy-willow plant (2 kg) was planted into the same figuline. For Five years nothing except rain-water has been entering the vessel. For this period a young plant has grown into a sapling. The experiment was completed. A clay vessel was broken; the earth from it was dried up and weighed. Over five years only 60gr. of it was used. A pussy-willow sapling was weighed. Its Weight was 68kg.
As nothing except for rain-water entered the vessel, but a pussy-willow continued growing a doctor Van-Gelmont drawn a conclusion: trees with their leaves bark and roots grow only due to water. Water is the source of nourishment and life of plants.
Only in three centuries, in our time scientists proved that in green world water, carbon dioxide and energy of sun are the source of life. They called this process - photosynthesis. It can be expressed as a schematic equation:
СО2 + Н2О + energy of light = 1/6 (С6Н12О6) + О2
Due to absorbed sun energy a green plant carries out chemical rearrangement of carbon dioxide and water molecules.
As a result of it the organic matter appears and free oxygen is being evolved. Only green organs and plant tissues, above all leaves have an ability to execute the functions of photosynthesis. Out of a leaf (chlorophyll grain) there is no a laboratory in nature, where it is possible to get the organic matter from inorganic one. Water is an obligatory component of every plant, every it’s organ, tissues and cells.
WATER CYCLE OF PLANTS.
The biggest part of plant cell content is water which is a major part of the organized matter. The role of water in the plant is conditioned by its unique physical and chemical properties (polarity of molecule).
Polarity forms due to the asymmetrical location of hydrogen and oxygen in water molecule that result in the uneven distributing of positive and negative charges.
As a result of this feature molecule Н2О, being electro-neutral has, nevertheless two poles, i.e represents doublet. Due to it, the molecules of water are able to form compounds with other charged particles, of different degree of complexity.
In the waterlogged cells of roots the most complex chain of processes of ionic exchange with soil is carried out absorbing water proteins develop pressure more than| 1000 atm.
In a plant cell cell water can be free and bound. Water is considered to be bound if it is held by the colloids of protoplasm, and also by the other osmotic active matters. The amount of permeates in a cell influences the content of bound water.
In leaves and roots equilibrium with external solution comes in 15-20 minutes, but a little more than a half of the water contained in them is exchanged. Water of stems is exchanged on 90%.
NAS established that at artificial dry of different plants types, firmly bound water disappears least of all and plants can resist to the drought and freezing.
For realization of all processes of vital functions, water and nutrients must come into a cell from an environment. Substances move due to diffusion inside a cell. Diffusion is an involuntary process which causes moving of any matter from one area to other, where concentration of this matter is less.
The real stream of molecules always comes from a source where their concentration is higher, to those areas, where their concentration is less. The higher concentration of the matter is the higher is its activity and chemical potential.
Chemical potential of clean water is called water potential. The highest value of water potential has chemically clean water. Conditionally this value is accepted as a zero, and therefore water potential of any matter has matters negative value.
The membranes of living cells can transport only certain molecules or ions of permeates, showing selectivity which depends on nature of membrane.
Diffusion of water through a membrane is osmosis.
As in all biological systems water is a solvent, osmosis for them is the diffusion of water through a membrane. The more concentrated a solution is the higher is osmotic pressure. Osmotic potential is equal to the difference between chemical potential of the solution and chemical potential of clean water. It is always negative, and its value testifies how a solute reduces water activity.
Motion of water caused not by nature solute in it, but an amount of particles of this matter. Water potential of the cell becomes more negative due to the presence of organic matters which couple water.
Coming of water into a cellcell is also possible through an electro-osmosis because of the difference of electric potentials which appear on different sides of membrane.
As a rule, cations or anions penetrate through a membrane quicker. The more quickly they join the exchange of matters; the more intensive their absorption is.
Therefore there is no equilibrium between ions content in an external solution and their presence in enchylema.
All interactions of plants with water have not biochemical, but but biophysical characternature, possibly even physicochemical. Biochemical reactions need only 1% of water from the amount passing through the plants. It is necessary to understand a very important aspect. The plant (cellcell) needs water not only as a source of nutritionnourishment, but more, as a mean of its clearance from toxins and other products of vital functions. It is known that there is not only upward flow (along a xylem), but also down flow– along a phloem.
A xylem is the system providing water and nutrients delivery from soil to the upper part top of the plant. The diameters of conducting elements of xylem vary in a range 10-500 micrometers for different types of plants. Their length can be from many micrometres to two or more meters. The resistance to water and solutions passing through them is very little because these conducting elements have no protoplasts and cell walls.
Water will rise along a capillary until pressure becomes balanced. Additional pressure in the vessels of xylem is not able to provide liquid rise in the plants for more than one meter.
In big distances water transfer is ruled by a volume flow which can overcome attractive power and support water motion in a xylem. The more capillary radius is the more is the rate of volume flow which dominates in the process of liquid transfer to large distances.
Phloem is the second conducting system that distributes most organic matters (above all things) for providing the processes of different plant parts growth.
Unlike a xylem phloem`s conducting elements have protoplasm. These conducting elements are called cribriform tubes. They are united in a chain,common chain which provides organic matters transporting. The products of photosynthesis move along the phloem from leaves to roots, and sugar moves from roots to a plant top (with unloading of phloem). Work of phloem is not enough studied yet. There is a hypothesis foreseeing participation of electro-osmosis in the transport of matters along phloem. The transportation of К+ ions is accompanied by the origin of the electric fields on every cribriform plate. Speed of photoassimilants movement is 50-100sm/h. Efflux from senescent organs on phloem is called – salvage (callose efflux). The more active water is the better unloads phloem.
Activity of clean water is equal to one. An addition of permeates into water diminishes water activity. If primordial cell potential is less than solution potential, it absorbs it. Otherwise water will pass from a plant cellcell into solution, until a dynamic equilibrium will not be established.
In the case of complete satiation of a leaf cell by water, photosynthesis diminishes, just as at its deficit. Maximal photosynthesis at the deficit of water is 5-20%.
The electronic transportation is less sensible to plants dehydration.
Passive transportation is moving due to diffusion. The gradient of concentration is a motive force of passive transportation of neutral molecules, and for the passive ions transportation - a gradient of electrochemical potential. Ions can passively diffuse through a membrane due to own kinetic energy, and also through the aquatic protein channels.
Ionophorcs are polypeptides and proteins able to create the proper channels for certain ions. If they are added to the artificial lipid membranes, they accelerate ion penetrating through a membrane in millions of times. There are two types of the inserted organic origin elements: selective (selected) channels of ionic conductivity and functional (enzymatic) proteins, as a basis of ionic pumps work. There are potassium, sodium, calcium and chloride channels.
As all ions are charged, so speed of their diffusion is determined not only by membrane penetrating, but also by the difference of their concentration on both its sides (chemical potential). And also by electric potential which arises up between the external and internal surfaces of membrane (electrochemical potential). On-the internal membrane surface the charge is negative, therefore cations are absorbed.
The processes of exchange of matters consist of reactions, which take place with the use of energy and with its liberation.
In the process of living organisms evolution was formed an ability to conservation of energy in the form of compounds which have high-energy compounds. Among these compounds - adenosine triphosphate has a central position (CAT).
ATPases (phosphoric compounds) is quasi a system of cellular muscles.
Ion Na+ is taken from a plant top. ATPase activates by potassium ions. And this is very important. Because, pumping out ballast sodium from a cellcell, ATPase simultaneously pumps full potassium that a cell needscell needs. Therefore it is alled sodium-potassium ATPase. Potassium influences on the activity of almost 60 enzymes. If humus is present in a soil, a plant can absorb more elements of nourishment from a solution. Humus serves as ions carrier.
Solution is a Any homogeneous system consisting of two or more components is called a solution.
Every solution consists of permeate and solvent, i.e. a milieu in which this matter is equally divided in a view of separate molecules or more small particles – ions.
When water is a solvent, such compounds are called hydrates, and a process of their formation – hydratation. At certain conditions hydration water is so durable bound with the molecules of permeate, that during the clearance of the last one from a solution it comes into the consistence of its crystals.
The saturated solution - is such a solution which can indefinitely long remain in equilibrium with a surplus of the dissolved matter. In most cases are used unsaturated solutions, i.e. with less concentration of permeating, than at a saturated solution.
A suspension is insoluble in water matter in the form of nonsettling microscopic particles being in suspension state.
At consideration of a drop of a liquid with the suspended particles in a strong microscope, it is possible to see that particles do not remain at peace, and continuously move to various directions. Their motion differs by an extreme disorderliness, without any regularity. This motion can proceed at any amount, not weakening and not changing their nature. In ionic solutions, where the charged micro particles constantly change the location, it is very difficult to determine physical and chemical properties. From one sample|model| of such solution, it is possible to get a few, absolutely different physical and chemical indexes and characteristics. Such solutions dissolve in water very well, getting into its molecular net contacting with doublets.
Major mineral elements, minor elements, ultra minor elements can be a part of solutions.
Major mineral elements – vary from hundredth parts to ten percents (Si, K, Mg, P, S, Fe).
Minor elements – vary from hundredth to hundred-thousandth parts of a percent (Mn, B, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ni, Мо, Co).
Ultra minor elements – vary from millionth parts of a percent (Cs, Cd, Ra, Ag).
Water solutions, even with a very few amount of а substance solute in them, can acquire its characteristic.
We will assume that we in someway succeeded to mark all molecules contained in 1 gram-molecule (18gr) of water. If now we outpour this water into a sea and wait till, it is evenly interfused with all waters on the earth, drawing glass of water from any place, we will find in it about 500 molecules marked by us. Or if the same amount (1 gram-molecule) of water, we, for example, evenly distribute on all ground surface, even on such conditions there will be about 100000 molecules on every square centimeter of the surface.
PROPERTIES OF WATER.
Almost all physical and chemical properties of water are exclusion in nature, and only due to these anomalies of water, life on our planet is possible, at least, in that form in which it exists.
The major feature of water is preservation of its structural changes in time, i.e «memory of water». One of the first who faced with «memory» was a father of homoeopathy Ganemann. Diliting a medicinal extract to the unthinkable degree, he wrote: «I take away the substance, keeping its force».
At the end of XIX cent Carl Nachelly prepared a solution of mercuric chloride for disinfection. All microorganisms perished in this solution. Then Nachelly diluted the solution to such degree, that probability that bacteria will meet the molecule of mercuric chloride was insignificantly small. But the solution killed bacteria not worse, than mercuric chloride.
Water memorized, that mercuric chloride was dissolved in it, and disinfectant acts of the solution were similar to act of the concentrate. Water remembers everything that had happened. Swiss scientists run an impressive experiment confirming this information. On the one bank of Genevan lake they dissolved in water a few molecules of salt. On the other bank they fixed… no, not salt but memory about itit. Sensitiveness of devices was simply not enough for salt by itself. But water of a lake saved this memory in full volume.
A living organism is the most complex system consisting of enormous number of cellscells. Such system can not normally act without an exchange of information between its structures. Biologists proved that water not only feels a living organism, it spreads information round it. Exactly due to it living body organs get signals about the state of each other, and how it is necessary to function.
When a substance dissolves in water, certain verges of structural elements of water surround the molecule of substance. These structural elements according to found coding property of informative system of water, line up the other structural elements of water in certain order reflecting properties of a solute.
This is the way of homoeopathic remedies` effect. Not only vanishing few amounts of preparations influence an organism, but creation of certain informative pattern of water has salutary influence on it. It is necessary to note that wave emission from water being in the magnetic field was discovered. If we exclude the magnetic field, an emission on frequencies of millimetric waves will exist for a long time.
Now it is an indisputable fact, that small and super small doses of different biologically active matters have noticeable influence on living organisms.
Biohumus - is a high-efficiency ecologically clean organic fertilizer with well expressed prolonged action. It is received in a result of decomposition of organic matters by the heterotrophic organisms. Biohumus forms on the base of coprolith (excrements) of composts worms. Micro flora and micro fauna which are part of biocenose of compost clamp, participate in its forming. Biohumus subjected to the initial organic waste and technology of its composting has certain qualitative and quantitative parameters which can be controlled and programmed.
Biohumus contains all microelements of nourishment necessary to the plants, and also biologically active matters and vitamins. Microorganisms able to fix atmospheric nitrogen are part of biohumus. The efficiency of biohumus is approximately 70 times higher than the traditional organic fertilizer – dung; besides in contrast to it, biohumus does not contain seeds of weeds that allow reducing application of herbicides.
Being, in fact, a native habitat of plants and containing the enormous amount of specific, soil-forming micro flora, biohumus can be used for the reanimation of soils having lost the fertility in a result of natural or man impact. It is necessary to note that practical application of biohumus is difficult.
Mainly it is used by the method of throwing in an amount 4-6 t/hec. At the same time it is a nutritional medium not only for cultivated plants but also for weeds. Biohumus differs by a high moisture-capacity and retains up to 70% of water, although badly dissolves itself. Its optimum humidity is within the limits of 60% that does not allow distributing it through seeders.
The most effective method of extraction from biohumus biologically active and nutrientive materials is hydromechanic dispersant. The dispersible suspension of biohumus has the size of microparticless – 30mk that in future allows using it for leaf-feeding by all types of spraying technique.
The wideuse of mineral fertilizers has began since second half of the XIX century in countries with the developed agriculture, that allowed to multiply productivity of grains from 10-15 to 30-45 c/ hectare.
Today in all developed countries 50-60% increase of agricultural production caused by mineral fertilizers application. It is necessary to take into account that the mineral fertilizers, above all, support a certain level of land fertility, with a purpose agricultural cultures does not exhaust soil. The nutritive sudstancesnutrients are lost because of wash-out, transformations into insoluble compounds fixed in a soil complex.
So 100 years ago the amount of humus in grounds of Ukraine was 10-12%, and in our time - only 2,5-6%. Thus every year about 24 millions tons of humus are being lost. Therefore, it is necessary together with the traditional agrochemical to improve a theory and practice of plants nourishment methods, to make conditions for prevention toxic elements penetration into them. It is necessary to turn from the simplified understanding about the nourishment of plants by cations and anions of mineral compounds to the priorities mechanisms of assimilation of bioplexes taking into account their co-operation in wild-life. It will allow considerably accelerating metabolic processes at simultaneous diminishing of power and raw materials expenses for harvest formation.
In the dry matter of plant it is possible to find atoms of 25-35 chemical elements in correlations which testify about different contribution to the processes of vital functions.
It is important to understand that cations and anions of mineral fertilizers are identical to the soil ions and organic fertilizers. They not foreign to wild-life and is identically assimilated by the plants in the process of vegetation. There is another question. It is known that from the fertilizers in a soil, only a partportion of nutritives is assimilated by the plants. On the average for most crop the use factor of the fertilizers is– 40-50%, phosphoric – 10-25%, potassium – 50-60%. As a rule, fertilizers unabsorbed by the plants, are accumulated in water and in soil. For the nitric fertilizers an increase of a dose of their bringing caused by high mobility in soil solution. Thus nourishing nitrogen compounds in a soil, under influence of bacteria become the poisonous substances - nitrites.
Expansion of the use of phosphoric and complex fertilizers results in accumulation in a soil not only phosphates, but strontium, cadmium, lead, fluorine and other compounds.
Bringing of excessive amount of fertilizers not only contaminates a soil but also changes its physicochemical and biotic properties.
So, ammoniac fertilizers acidulate soilground that negatively influences the rootage of plants, violate potassium and calciumnourishment. The use of nitrates, sulfates and chlorides as the fertilizers is instrumental in the losses of calcium and magnesium, strengthen the solinization. Chemical fertilizers in soil can cause complex interaction between biogenic and toxic elements, macro and microelements, chemical matters and biota, that substantially changes properties and fertility of soils, and above all growth and productivity of plants, their quality.
The chemical compounds, which have toxic characteristics in relation to living organisms, are called pesticides.
The wide use of pesticides is typical for the second half of the ХХ century. Regulating with their help biotic factors, it was succeeded to decrease loss of harvest on 35%, including loss of harvest because oа harmful animals and insects on 14%, because of illnesses on 12%, because of weeds on 9%. However only in many years of the intensive use of pesticides it appeared, that their efficiency in the pest control is accompanied by the whole range of negative consequences among which the most important is high-toxic matters introduction into biogeochemical circulation. The world assortment of pesticides counts about 900 basic types. About 500 preparations are constantly used, that makes 4 million tons of annual entrance of high-toxic matters into environment. Mineral fertilizers are brought in an amount about 500 million tons of physical mass.
For today in Ukraine are registered more than 243 types of pesticides and a part of them have unknown origin and clinical effect. So, for 90th the factories of Ukraine have produced 4 insecticides, 12 fungicides, 14 herbicides and 2 of disinfectants of seeds. For today their domestic production diminished considerably, and the list of similar preparations had grown due to the import: insecticides to 47, fungicides to 72 and herbicides to 97.
Even in such a developed country as the USA, from the common quantity of used pesticides, only 10% are tested on mutagene activity, 30% - on carcinogenic and 40% on teratogenic. Except for high toxicity, pesticides differ by persistence. The inspection implemented in 1990 in Ukraine testifies, that in a number of regions pesticides penetrated to groundwater on a depth almost 220 meters, and in underwaters it was found 40 types of pesticide residues and their metabolites, including dichlorodipheny, the use of which has been forbidden for almost 30 years.
In Ukraine the inspections of plant growing production showed that 25% contain the remaining amount of pesticides. Maximally possible level is exceeded in 5,1%. Most frequency of exposure in a soil of such pesticides residues as THAN, PHK, simazin, alirox, atrazine, agelon, 2,4-D, dichlorodipheny, dialen, lenazyl, prometholonum, protazyn, treflan, aptan, aridikan, and at vegetative productions – PHK, lenazyl, atrazine, simaxyn, alirox, sitrin, THAN.
As biologically active matters, pesticides and their compounds from a nutrient medium often are the components of plants metabolism and thus come into food chain of animals and people. No wonder that more than 3 million poisonings and 20.000 fatal cases caused by pesticides are annually registered in the world.
For today biochemical influence of pesticides to plants on cellular level is not studied enough. There are no doubts that their molecules are not ballast matters of living cells and not inert components of chemical reactions in nature.
FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT AND
NOURISHMENT OF AGRICULTURAL
All plants, for the growth and development have certain demands to external environment conditions. They include air, light, water, heat and nutritives, thus all of them are equal and irreplaceable. The deficiency or lack of one of them will be unavoidable cause the considerable weakening of growth or death of a plant.
It is possible to get big crops with good technological values only at favorable agro climatic conditions, observance of the technologies foreseen for a certain area with the use of high-efficiency complex fertilizers.
Except for a carbon, oxygen and hydrogen received from air, the plants extract from soil with water such important component elements of nourishment as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulphur. These elements of nourishment are consumed by the plants in comparatively generous amounts and that is why they are called macroelements. Those elements which are consumed by the plants in comparatively less amounts (coniferous forest, manganese, copper, molybdenum, zinc, cobalt, sodium and some other) are called microelements.
Each of these elements participates in the normal vital functions of plants and can not be substituted by some other. The level of necessity of these elements depends on a species, breed, sort, age and phase of plant development.
We will describe of most essential of them.
NITROGEN is an organic essential for growth of plants compound participating in their development. The plants in different periods of vegetation feel different need in it. It is important that some types of plants use nitrogen not only for growth and corps forming, but can accumulate it and save in reserve.
At the same time at the lack of nitrogen, plants grow poorly, begin to wither. Surplus of nitrogen has unfavorable influence on the garden plants: increases falling of garden-stuffs before ripening; resistance to the cold of trees goes down.
PHOSPHORUS is an important element of nutritionnourishment, which is instrumental for better assimilation of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium. It accelerates formation and ripening of garden-stuffs.
At insufficient flux of phosphorus a protein metabolism interrupts and retrogress assimilation of nitrogen from a soil. Features of the lack of phosphoric nourishment are growth inhibition, dark-green and lusterless leaves with purple spots or stripes.
POTASSIUM does not enter into the composition of organic compounds, but plays an important role in carbonhydratess formation, raises stability of plants to the diseases. Necessity in it is not less than in nitrogen. Potassium is instrumental in absorption by the plants of other nutrients and their movement in the plants.
At the deficiency of potassium photosynthesis gets worse, stability to mycotic diseases and resistance to the cold decreases. Features of potassium lack: descent of growth, up to brachysm, edges of leaves become fulvous, while ribs remain green. Sick leaves shed early.
These are the most essential elements of nutritionnourishment. If indicated three elements form the basis of nourishment of plants, others are conditionally necessary.
MAGNESIUM - Old leaves signal about its lack above all things: their color becomes look like a herring-bone pattern – light yellow; yellow and then fulvous spots appear between green ribs. Such phenomenon has a name. At that considerable part of leaves die off- first of all older ones, falling of garden-stuffs.
SULPHUR takes part in making of albumens and vitamins by the plant. The dimension leaves size diminishes at the lack of it lack, they become woody. The deficit of sulphur at the plants exhibits rarely.
IRON There is serious chlorosis at its deficiency (it starts with upper leaves). Illness shows up at the garden plants, foremost on browses.
BOHR raises resistance of plants to the mycotic diseases. Its deficiency Influences on forming of fruit ovaries and fruiting. Inside and outside garden-stuffs appear watery cankers, which become like a cork and have fulvous color and the taste of garden-stuffs become bitterish.
COPPER is instrumental in drought- resistance, and its deficiency results in the oppressed growth of sproutssprouts, weak development of rootage. Coloring of leaves gets a dark blue-green color, flowering stays too long.
MANGANESE raises humectancy, reduces volatility of moisture by leaves, has influence on fruiting. At manganese deficiency chlorosis is evident in spots; growth and fruiting of plants become slowly or even stop.
MOLYBDENUM participates in a regulation processregulation of nitric exchange of matters. At its deficiency nitrogen assimilation violates, therefore the signs of its starvation are similar with the signs of insufficiency of nitrogen – the pale green color of leaves appears, a lamina becomes deformed and dies off.
ZINCUM participates in protein carbon and phosphoric metabolism. Its deficiency Detains cell fission that causes change of leaves structure. On the ends of branches appear brachyblasts with small leaves. The phosphoric fertilizers in increased doses reduce the zinc entrance to the plants.
It is therefore necessary to use the fertilizer with the balanced composition of elements of nourishment which is instrumental in the increase of harvest, improves its quality and allows resisting to the diseases.
«Riverm» is such a preparation. It is necessary to note that «Riverm», very well combines with herbicides and fungicides. Experience in «Riverm» application showed that a harvest and its quality were considerably improved at leaf-feeding.
«Riverm» includes the balanced elements nourishment and also the most essential for fruit cultures macro and micro elements - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, coniferous forest, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc etc.
The major factor which secures high biological activity of «Riverm» is its enriching by useful micro flora.
At biohumus dispersant process particles surface area in unit of volume and their sorption properties increase. In that way are formed the most favorable conditions for the development of such useful microorganisms as organotrophic and eutrophic bacteria, which accelerate transformation of nitrogen compounds in a soil (optimize the humus state of soil), micro mycetomes and streptomycetomes which activate the processes of cellulose decomposition to bioactive matters, azotobacters and phosphobacters, which are instrumental in fixing of nitrogen and conversion of mineral phosphorus compounds in organic forms and product a range of biologically active matters responsible for growth and development of plants.
The plants, its structures, mainly consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur. The other elements make auxiliary functions, joining the separate structures of a cell. So, for example, a calcium executes alarm functions, magnesium joins chlorophyll, iron – histohematins and etc.
It is very important, for normal growth and development of plants to provide their sodium-potassium balance. It is known a little about the role of sodium in life of plant. Making of high osmotic pressure is in cellular juice is its main function, that allows the plant to extract water from dry and saline soils. Potassium raises the hydrophilicity of protoplasm and multiplies its waterretaining ability, creating jointly with sodium the difference of potentials on the cell membrane. The presence of potassium secures existence of plant at night, when there is no sunlight.
Root nutrition of agricultural cultures is effective at the shallow position of rootage and sufficient moisture-capacity.
When roots are disposed on a considerable depth only leaf-feeding can be effective. Let`s consider, for example, vineyards. At an age of several dozens of years the length of grapes roots varied from 5 to 15м. There are few nutrients in this layer; therefore a rootage serves as their store, in a case of critical situations. Therefore the most important is leaf-feeding of grape in 7-8 days after harvesting. In this period leaves begin to throw down sugar accumulated in them, starch and other matters into a rootage. Having no dormant state, a rootage develops almost all winter.
Due to it, in spring appear 3-4 sprouts covered by bast. Thus vineyardraises stability not only against light frosts, but also against many diseases, including a bacterial cancer.
Growing rye as a separate bush, Ditmer determined that general length of roots and roots fibrils, at it attained 10000km. An accretion every day was 5km. of roots and 80км. of roots fibrils.
For most agricultural plants, productivity of evaporation makes about 3g. In other words expending 1000g. of water, the plant synthesizes 3g of dry matters.
For the construction of component parts of the body, the plant uses a 0,2% of water skipped through itself. 99,8% - are used for evaporation. Thus, the stronger is wind, the greater is evaporation (steppe zonezone). For example, wheat in Kherson region at medium productivity evaporates during a vegetation period 300-320mm of water, which exceeds the amount of falling fallouts. Therefore for winter crops is very important a rootage penetrated to the depth of frost zone before frosts.
Winter rape must have the thickness of a stem before frosts not less than 5mm.
Preplant treatment of bean cultures seeds by preparations containing azotobacters, provides their good growth without the expenses of energy on forming of tubers.
The higher plants are incapable, to use as nitric food atmospheric nitrogen, as they are unable to overcome forces of atoms coherence in the molecule of the last. That`s why all huge mass of free nitrogen (8t/m2 of the earth) not is accessible to the plant. Even in organically rich soils there is 1-2%of nitrogen accessible to the plant or approximately 200kg/hec of topsoil. In the other soils there is in 3-4 times less nitrogen.
In 1901 Ì. M Beyerink found the aerobic microorganism called azotobacter. Azotobacters are very important for photosynthesis. In a year they accumulate from 10 to 40kg of bound nitrogen for 1hec.
There are about 40ml/1gr of soil in black earth of nitrogen.. Some preparations have them in 1gr hundreds of millions. For example, in «Riverm» there are more than 150 million/1gr azotobacters. This question is very actual today because almost all biota is destroyed on the earth. In many soils there are no azotobacters, and a soil is considered dead without them. Morbific viruses and bacteria dangerous for us take their position.
The plants are complex biological organisms and it is natural that they depend not only upon the nourishment conditions, but also from geophysical processes. When growing plants it is necessary to take into account their biological clock.
A biological clock is a cellular mechanism, which cause the rhythm of cell vital functions or plant ability to orientate in time (clear periodicity of physical-chemical processes).
This ability to perceive vibrations of geophysical factors, day's and seasonal periodicity of the electric and magnetic fields of Earth, climate, sun and cosmic radiation, lighting, and etc.
For example, nobody can explain how a tree produces electric power. But such effect exists. The Inventor Gordon Uold says that it is very will simple to prove it. It is necessary to stick one bar through a bark to the trunk of living tree, and other alongside, in soil, on a depth 20 sm and to connect a voltmeter. A pointer will show that between bars there is potential 0,8-1,2V of direct current in a trunk and in earth. But most interesting, that tension for some reason rises in winter, when there no leaves. Maybe, it is one of reasons of intolerance by the plants of each other. It is known that a peach, very aggressively behaves toward a pear. Stone-fruits do not live in harmony with wild strawberry. A raspberry is a kind neighbor. Neighborhood of such cultures as berry bushes (currant, gooseberry and especially raspberry) is not recommended with apple-trees and apple trees are undesirable to plant with plums and cherries. It is known that walnut and mountain ash usual oppress apple-trees. There is similar incompatibility among the fields plants. The increasing requirements to quality of agricultural products will necessarily result in the revision of technologies of its growing taking into account all necessary factors.
REVIVAL OF SOIL FERTILITY
Today soils resources are considered in a society mainly, as a source and a method of income receipt. The modern high farming resulted in the serious ecological problems related to degradation of soils and exhaustion of their fertility. Soil is a living medium which develops on its own laws.
Every particle of soil contains the enormous amount of living organisms: microflora, micro - and mesofauna. Besides 9/10 all types of insects spend their life in soilground. To 1м2 of ground surface fit 2kg of living organisms’ biomass, and on 1hec – to 20t. l, It is impossible to violate life in soil.
The aggregate of all soil organisms V.È. Vernadskiy called the living matter of soil. Taking into account the generation of microorganisms, annual productivity of their mass is multiplied in dozens of times and is achieved 192t/hec. It shows that productivity of dynamic microbal mass for vegetation period approximately equals to productivity of above-ground mass of plants. Unfortunately plenty of bacterial plasma (0,03 – 0,28% mass of topsoil) remains not investigational, although huge possibilities of fertility-improving soils are hidden here.
Due to the living matter of soil soluble chemical elements which are only 1,5 – 2% from general mass in the earth's crust, are revolved on the closed curve. It is the main reason of that the wretched amount of nourishment elements in soil enables plants to synthesize enormous masses of organic matter annually. It is necessary to realize that the criterion of soil fertility is not amount of nourishment elements, and a degree of their participation, in biochemical circulation. These can account for that researchers do not find direct dependence between the amount of nutrients in soil and amount of harvest that is why it is impossible to conclude about intensity of biological processes after the remaining amount of movable elements of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium determined by modern methods. A circulation is a dynamic process and that is why composition of ash is not capable to complete information about total mass of matters engaged in metabolism. And if to take into account excretions of organisms in their lifetime the amount of which considerably exceeds mass of organism, it will become clear how incomplete and distant from objectivity are modern methods of soils and plants analysis.
In 1976 А. Р Rode wrote, that soil without organisms is a dead body. Determining composition of humus physical - chemical indexes soluble in acids or pratums phosphorus and potassium; we pay no attention to the most powerful force - living matter of a soil.
Accumulation of nutritives is related to dying off of heterotrophic organisms, which in natural terms happens in the topsoil (0-5, 0-10см), then the methods of its treatment and bringing of agrochemicals accordingly must be revised.
During last years slowly, but confidently has been developing an organic agriculture. The nutritives in organic agriculture are determined not by a presence of them in soil solution, but according to composition of insoluble mineral constituents of soil (that depends on matrix type) to maintenance of humus, biological activity, soil structure, saturation by gases, presence of organic residues.
Organic matter is the most important component part of soil. Humus is basis of organic matter; it is the source of nourishment both for the plants and for microorganisms. It also forms the structure of soil raising its cation exchange properties due to co-operation with cations of metals.
For a long time agriculture in Ukraine has been developing by a way of maximally possible intensification with the use of high doses of mineral fertilizers, facilities of plants chemical protection intensive sowing sessions, saturated by corn and technical crops. The main soil treatment was deep plowing. This system of agriculture did not stand a test by time. Gradually the facts of its negative influence on soils fertility became obvious, the quality of the final product recproductiand state of environment. Not unimportant factor of such situation is formed mentality in agriculture. For today considerable part of farmers is disturbed by providing of plants by macro and micro elements and facilities of their protection.
In structured biologically active soil, a layer of 8sm and an area of 1hec couples nitrogen, sand clay – 47,5; black earth – 1543,0.
Besides in the structured soil underground dew which supplies to soil near 60kg of nitrogen falls out. For good harvest of wheat or beet are required 100-120 kg/hec.
For a good harvest are needed 300 kg/hec of phosphoric acid. Sandy soil contains 870 kg/hec of it, black earth – 5400 kg/hec. It is expended 60-90 kg/hec of potassium. Its contents in soil, in a layer 20 sm, (kg/hec): stony (rocky) - 300; clay - 4000; black earth - 18900.
The roots of plants penetrate much deeper; consequently, they can have enough potassium. On our black earths we do not have a deficiency in the other elements of feed.
On this basis, we must learn to use riches lying under our feet and circumferential us in an atmosphere. For this purpose it is necessary to change mentality and to realize that the plants can obtain the feed only in symbiosis with the living matter of soil.
Consequently, biological activity of soil must be spared the special attention. It is possible to return activity to our degraded soils after general chemicalixation due to the use of symbiotic plural-component bacterial or special biodynamic preparations.
One of such preparations is «Riverm».
When bringing «Riverm» into soil, hard accessible for the plants of compounds decay on accessible ions:
Са2+, Mn2+, K+, Fe2+, PO43- and other
Almost 98% of biotelements of soil are concentrated in organic residues and hardly soluted inorganic connections. It is a large reserve of nutritives. Due to «Riverm» the plant can provide itself by elements of feeds which are present in an enough amount in soil. In this case «Riverm» executes the function of ions transmitter, accelerating their moving from ground solution into the rootage of plant, improves physical and chemical properties of soil, strengthens activity of microorganisms, promotes efficiency of other fertilizers.
All these factors lead to soil fertility that helps the growth and development of plants.
«Riverm» is a liquid, suspension, environmently safe, organic fertilizer of a new generation.
«Riverm» production technology lies in extraction of nutritive and bioactive substences from biohumus with the help of hudrolic and mechanical dispersion. Dispersed biohumus mixes with water in a special hydrodiffusion plant. It is known that, being electrically neutral, a water molecule has two poles, i.e. it is a dipole. Because of this, water molecules can form compounds of different complaxities with charged particles of dispersed biohumus. Thus, biochemical composition for “Riverm” fertilizer is not so much important as its structure, like an intire self-organizing system, which provides natural biological activity of fertilizer. “Riverm” structural order provides safety of microorganisms and its life products, such as ferments and growth substences. Usefull microbiocenoses accelerate nitrogen compounds transformation in soil (optimize humus content of soil), stimulate the processes of cellulose decomposition to bioactive substenses, promote nitrogen fixation, phosphorus organic compounds transformation into mineral assimitated forms and produce a number of bioactive substences (vitamins, aminoacids, auxins) fostering the growth and development of plants. Multiple experiments and studies of agrichemical and physical properties of “Riverm” have shown that it shouldn’t be considered uniquely as the fertilizer in its traditional sense. The functional range of “Riverm” is wider.
Approximately in 20 minutes after spray treatment the working solution of “Riverm” penetrates in a cropper’s cells and reaches its root system, providing ionic exchanging with soil. Because of that the cropper can extract even combined (dead) water from soil. Ionic link between the root fibers and leaf area bounds water molecules and does not allow them to evaporate. It ensures the croppers resistance to drought and frosts.
Essentially, being a solution with biophysical properties, “Riverm” raises protoplasm’s hydrophilic behavior and increases its water-holding capacity, positively effecting on synthesis of proteins, amylose, fats, and carbohydrates. “Riverm” functioning is associated with processes of electrons transition from one catalyzed protein to another which must be considered as a basic result of redox reaction in a cell. It specifies the biological rhythm of a cell vital activity and ensures a cropper capability to have a strict periodicity of physical and chemical processes.
To perform all the processes of vital activity water and nutritive substances must enter a cell. The faster nutritive substances take part in metabolic process the more intensive a cropper consumes them providing its normal growth and development.
In normal solutions dissolved substance is smoothly distributed as separate molecules. The higher the substance concentration is the higher his activity and thus its chemical strength. But the membranes of the live cells can transport certain molecules of substances presenting selective ability that depends on the membrane nature. Besides, a molecule is bigger than an ion and so their transportation through a membrane is always more difficult and slower.
All the interactions of a cropper and water have not biochemical but biophysical properties and perhaps physical and chemical.
«Riverm» is a substance with electrovalent (ionic) bond that consists of positively and negatively charged ions, bounded with electrostatic attraction. The concentration of microelements in it is not higher than 1,5% of the total volume that corresponds the European standard. Furthermore, disperse biohumus play the role of ions carrier. Because of the difference of electric potentials, which arise on both sides of a membrane, cations and anions come through it faster and quickly take part in metabolic processes in cytoplasm. Their excess diffuses with vacuole. Because of that there is no balance between ions’ composition in outward solution and their presence in a cell sap. It ensures normal functioning of all the parts of the cropper and, what is very important, the phloem unloading. At that, “Riverm” performs not only the function of plants nutrition, but the ability to remove toxins and other products of vital activity.
The cells’ vacuoles contain saline solutions, glucose, organic substances and amino acids, that is why they are constantly absorbing water producing the turgor pressure. Therefore the “Riverm” working solution is close to clear water activity. If the solution will be more concentrated than a cell, water from the cell will transmit to the solution. That is why usage of chemical solutions, the molecules of which does not contain ions, depends on the concentration gradient. Real flow for the molecules of such solutions is always performing from the source, where the concentration is higher, to those areas where the concentration is lower. At that, the higher the concentration is the higher the solution activity is and consequently the osmotic pressure. Applying such solutions a cell is forcedly filled with substances restoring the balance between itself and the solution. Water stops entering a cell and the activity of photosynthesis decreases. If the vegetative period of a plant is determined wrongly, there is a probability of water outflow from a cell to the solution. This is the difference between biochemical and biophysical solutions to which “Riverm” is relative.
Preparing of the “Riverm” working solution depends on physical and chemical properties of water in which it is diluted. At that, percentage in water amount is more important than the fertilizer’s amount per a unit of square. Water molecular lattice that has different composition can take different amount of “Riverm” (from 1% to 5%). Rate of “Riverm” application also depends on species of plants and their vegetative periods.
Being an alkalescent solution “Riverm” has good fungicidal properties and protects plants from grey foot rot, odium and other fungus disease.
“Riverm” mixes well with other crop protecting agents and at the same time their quantity per a unit of square decreases but the effectiveness increases.
The most important property of “Riverm” is its enrichment with azotobacters and phosphobacters, which fix air nitrogen and deminerelize heavy and saline soils, and thus increasing their fertility.
Nowadays “Riverm” has shown itself to good advantages not only in Ukraine but in such countries like Pakistan, Turkey, and Poland and so on. Environmently safe products of natural origin are the future of farm production.
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